Thursday, September 18, 2008

Analog Clock

Wednesday, August 20, 2008

Background of Bihari in Bangladesh

Many people in the world are citizens of nowhere. They cannot vote. They cannot own property or obtain a passport. The Biharis of Bangladesh are one such stateless population. There are currently 250,000 to 300,000 stateless Biharis in Bangladesh. Because they were part of the opposition to Bangladesh's independence movement, they were stripped of their citizenship and now reside in sixty-six camps throughout the country.

The Biharis have three of the four characteristics that encourage future protest: significant political restrictions; Bangladesh's short history of democratic rule; and support from kindred groups such as the Mohajirs in Pakistan. It remains to be seen if mounting Bihari frustration coupled with continuing Pakistani intransigence will lead to a new violent phase in the Bihari struggle for repatriation. Bangladesh has generally been indifferent to the plight of the Biharis; however, in recent years it has actively pressed Pakistan to repatriate the stranded Pakistanis. A minority of Biharis recently applied for Bangladeshi citizenship, and was successful, but many others still lobby to return to Pakistan. Some experts believe that there is a generational gap within the community, with younger Biharis seeking to settle in Bangladesh. The Biharis, who are also referred to as the Stranded Pakistanis, are urban dwellers who reside in some 66 camps throughout Bangladesh. They have lived in these camps since the early 1970s after the Pakistani civil war led to the creation of Bangladesh.
In pre-independence India, the Biharis were an Urdu-speaking Muslim minority in the Hindu region of Bihar. In 1947, at the time of partition, the Biharis moved to what was then East Pakistan. When civil war broke out between East and West Pakistan, the Biharis, who consider themselves Pakistani, sided with West Pakistan. In 1971, however, East Pakistan became the independent state of Bangladesh. The Biharis were left behind as the Pakistani army and civilians evacuated and found themselves unwelcome in both countries. Pakistan feared a mass influx of Biharis could destabilize a fragile and culturally mixed population, and Bangladesh scorned the Biharis for having supported the enemy.

The Biharis share a common religion with the majority Muslim population. However, they speak multiple languages including Urdu and Bengali and have different social customs than the dominant Bengalis.
The residence of the Biharis in present-day Bangladesh is the result of the 1947 partition of the Indian subcontinent and the creation of India and Pakistan. At that time, around one million Biharis migrated from India to East Pakistan. The Biharis were a skilled workforce who could speak Urdu, the official language of Pakistan, and thus they were able to fill key bureaucratic and private sector positions in East Pakistan. The Bengalis of East Pakistan, resentful of West Pakistani domination, turned their hostility toward the Bihari community. During the East Pakistani struggle for independence in 1970-71, the Biharis sided with the West Pakistanis and some Biharis joined armed movements to support them.
Following India's military intervention which helped to ensure the creation of Bangladesh, clashes between the Biharis and Bangladeshis ensued. The Biharis were stripped of their properties, several thousand were jailed, and the majority was to reside in camps in urban centers. The Biharis chose to move to Pakistan as their cultural ties were closer with the West Pakistanis. Pakistan initially agreed to the repatriation and some 163,000 Biharis were resettled in Pakistan by 1981.
Developments within Pakistan have severely limited any further repatriation. The Biharis are primarily Urdu-speakers like the Mohajir community that resides in Pakistan's Sindh province. Violent disputes between the Mohajirs and the Sindhi-speakers in Pakistan led the Pakistani government to fear that any future repatriation would tip the balance in favor of the Urdu-speakers and spark further violent unrest in Sindh province. As a result, successive Pakistani government has shown a great deal of reluctance to accept Biharis as citizens. The Stranded Pakistanis are at risk as they are subject to discrimination; they are disadvantaged due to past discrimination; and they support political organizations that advocate greater group rights.

It has been almost three decades since the Biharis were first installed in the 66 camps throughout Bangladesh. They suffer from severe demographic stress. Conditions in the camps are dismal as public health facilities such as clean water and sanitation are very limited and restrictions on employment have led the Biharis to suffer from food shortages. Government policy ensures that they are not allowed to freely reside in other areas of the country.
The Biharis are considered as stateless as most have neither Bangladeshi nor Pakistani citizenship. As a result, they are denied basic political rights such as the right to vote and recruitment to the civil service, police, military, and political office. These political restrictions severely limit the group's economic opportunities and continue to perpetuate their poverty and under representation.

Most Biharis are still seeking repatriation to Pakistan but there is a growing minority that has resigned itself to living in Bangladesh and is thus seeking Bangladeshi citizenship. In 2001, a small group filed a case in the Bangladesh High Court seeking the right to vote, which was granted in 2003. While this represented the first time that Biharis have been recognized as citizens of Bangladesh, it remains to be seen whether a greater number of the community will seek the same status. It is also unclear whether the Bangladesh government is willing to accept them, as talks have been held between the Bangladesh and Pakistani government on the issue. Economic concerns are also a major issue as their lack of citizenship restricts the types of employment they are able to obtain.The group is represented by conventional organizations that promote group interests. The major organizations include the Nasim and Ejaz factions of the Stranded Pakistanis General Rehabilitation Committee (SPGRC) and the Committee for Rehabilitation of Non-Bengalis in Bangladesh. The majority of group members support these organizations. The Biharis are a strong identity group that has not experienced any intragroup violence since the early 1990s .They are politically supported by the major Mohajir party in Pakistan, the MQM, and the camps in which they reside are partially funded by the Saudi-based NGO, the Rabita Alam Al-Islami.

Tuesday, July 1, 2008

A Study On The Contribution of Remittance In GDP of Bangladesh

Summery of the Study
Remittance is the amount of money that the migrant workers send to their home countries. In other sentence it is the portion of migrant workers earnings sent back from the country of employment to the country of origin (ILO, 2000). Usually it’s in cash transfer although such transfers are frequently held in kinds which known as hawala[1]. Various studies show that flows of migrant remittances from sending to receiving countries are continuously growing. Global figures state that official remittances have increased from less than US$ 2 billion in 1970 to US$ 80 billion in 2000 (ILO, 2002). Sixty percent of the global remittance flow is towards developing countries (Sorensen 2004), which a positive signal for all developing countries and Bangladesh is no exception.Bangladesh is a small agricultural country of South Asia with a total area of 144,000 sq km with a huge population of 144.43 million (2006)­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­BBS. Agriculture alone is the main sector in the contribution to the GDP about 15[2] percent of total in Bangladesh­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­. Industry sector contribute 29.77 percent and Service sector 49.12 percent ­­­­­­­BBS. But it has a large labor supply. It accumulates an average of 146914 workers per year (1976-2006) in the global labor market, which is also a very important sub-sector to earn higher GDP. These big amounts of migrant workers are mainly responsible for the growing remittance in Bangladesh. In 2002, it accounted for 2% of the global remittance transfer and 12% of the official remittance to South Asia. If we give a deep look to the remittance, which is important sector to earn GDP of an economy of a country like Bangladesh, shows that from a long time migrant workers are sending remittance. The early time after independence, the total sizes of migrant workers and remittance growth rate was small. The condition improved from the beginning of 1989. Yet, still the growth trend and the amount of remittance are not satisfactory. Many problems are responsible for this unsatisfactory lower remittance. These are the ineffective policy of the government, failure of the formal banking system, inefficiency in the ministries and agencies, problem facing in the transferring money, instability and serious decline of law and order situation.

[1] Hawala is a Bengali word.
[2] BBS report on National Accounts Statistics for the FY 2007(Provisional)


November 22 - December 21

At the heart of Sagittarian lore stands the centaur Chiron, the figure of philosopher and teacher within Greek mythology. As a centaur, Chiron personifies the very soul of Sagittarius.
Here is a symbol of half man, half horse, portraying the conflict between the philosophical mind and the carnal instinct of human nature. The glyph represents an arrow slung in a bow, aiming at the stars. This symbol corresponds with the Sagittarian ideals of cosmic progress and abundance. The ruler of Sagittarius is Jupiter.

Personal Traits
Sagittarians are positive people.They have a bright outlook on life, are enterprising, full of energy and vitality. Versatile, adventurous and eager to expand their range beyond the comfortable and familiar. They enjoy travel and exploring, and their minds are continually searching for new experiences. They are ambitious, optimistic folk, and nothing seems to get them down.
They are idealists, and this seems to keep them going even when thereare disappointments which smash their plans. They have a tendency to get over zealous when they are interested in something. They are believers, and what they believe in, they are willing to fight for. They are both loyal and independent at the same time. They manage to balance both traits.
Sagittarians are usually modest and often spiritual, with strong values. They like rituals. They are profound thinkers, and are gifted with foresight and good judgment. They are avid learners, love to initiate new projects and make great researchers.
They study quickly with keen minds. They have an expectant attitude and a penchant for new experiences, which may account for the fact that Sagittarians are noted for their longevity. They are often intuitive and original thinkers. Better at adapting than inventing, they work well in collaboration with others. A strong-will and good organization ability combined with their other talents usually bring any project they undertake to a successful conclusion. (Collected)